Many Lactobacillus and Lactococcus strains are generally regarded as safe for consumption because they are utilized for food fermentation or inhabit the intestinal mucosa as commensals. Recently, vaccine delivery systems using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been under development. Our research group has been investigating the development of oral mucosal vaccines against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) using Lactobacillus casei IGM393 as an antigen delivery vehicle. Recombinant lactobacilli expressing SE antigens, FliC, SipC, and OmpC, have been constructed and orally administered to mice. Antigen specific immune responses and protective immunity were elicited after the immunization. For adjuvant-delivery, IL-1β-secreting L. casei was also engineered and its effects evaluated in vitro and in vivo. This article reviews a novel approach to the elimination of Salmonella via the development of a vaccine in lactobacilli.